Maturation disorders are all morphological alterations of cells, that differ from the regular stage of maturation. Numerous reasons can cause maturation disorders, e.g. inflammatory-infectious diseases, drugs (G-CSF, immunosuppressive and/or cytostatic drugs, cotrimoxazole, etc.), lack of trace elements, lack of vitamin B12- or folic acid , exposure to heavy metals (e.g. lead), myelodysplastic syndromes and others more.
Those morphological alterations are called dysplasia or signs of dysplasia, that are typically seen in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). To qualify as a criterion for myelodysplastic syndromes, at least 10% of the cells of one myeloid cell lineage must be affected. Since these alterations are oft discrete, the quality of the blood film and the staining must be excellent.
Signs of dysplasia in myelodysplastic syndromes: