Hemoglobin C disease belongs to the hemoglobinopathies. It occurs in inhabitants of western Africa and their descendants. A diagnosis is established by blood film examination and hemoglobin electrophoresis.
Only the homozygous form of hemoglobin C is symptomatic. Anemia is not severe with values between 80 and 120 g/L. A mild hemolysis and a palpable splenomegaly occur as well as occasional gallstones.
Typically, up to 80% of the erythrocytes are target cells. Additionally, a polychromasia often occurs as well as hypochromia and microcytosis in some patients.