Hypersplenism is defined as a peripheral cytopenia caused by splenomegaly. The enlargement of the spleen leads to sequestration of blood cells and consequently to increased cell destruction.
The clinical picture is usually characterized by the underlying disease (e.g. hepatic cirrhosis) which is the cause of the splenomegaly. However, anemia, leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia can lead to symptoms like exercise intolerance or hemorrhaging.
Anemia, leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia may be present. A moderately raised reticulocyte count and polychromasia are an indication of a compensatory increase of erythropoiesis. Otherwise, blood cells are cytologically inconspicuous .